How-to: Save Seeds (The Wet Method)

Here is part two of the seed saving infographics I’ve created, this one focusing on the wet method of seed saving. The previous post on the dry method can be found here [x].

As we officially start off the summer, it’s never too early to start thinking about the harvest, and what practices we can implement throughout the year to create a more sustainable, even regenerative, garden. For more information on the importance of seed saving in particular, I’ve included links to additional resources below.

So, click on the image for the full-sized version, and feel free to download and share as you wish! Detailed steps are included below the graphic.

Saving Seeds - Wet Method

The Wet Method

Step 1: Know your plants

When you begin harvesting from your plants, make a note of which plants you want to take seeds from. Maybe you like the taste of a particular plant, or a plant did well in extreme weather conditions and you want to preserve those traits. From there, do some research to understand the life cycle of your plants to know when you should harvest seeds. The wet method of seed saving is ideal for melons, squash, cucumber, tomatoes, tomatillos, citrus, cactii, chiles, and similar plants.

Step 2: Fermentation

When you’re ready to save the seeds, take the seeds and some of the pulp of the fruit and mix it together with warm water. Let the mixture sit and ferment for a few days. The viable seeds will sink to the bottom while the hollow and less viable seeds will float to the top. This fermentation step also inoculates the seeds against pathogens, which will help the plant remain healthy as it grows.

Step 3: Clean and dry

At the end of the fermentation process, decant the water and rinse the seeds until they are clean. Then, dry the seeds in a warm, dry spot of your home, or in your oven on the lowest setting with the door open. If you dry them using the oven, be sure to keep an eye on them so that they don’t roast. The seeds are properly dried when they break, but do not bend.

Step 4: Proper storage

When your seeds are ready for storage, be sure to keep them sorted properly and label the containers with the type of plant, the date the seeds were saved, and other pertinent information on growing. You can get special seed envelopes, or just use regular paper envelopes. Then, store the packets in a cool, dry place. It is essential that the seeds are not exposed to moisture after they have been dried! You can add a small bit of cornflour or powdered milk to the packets to absorb any excess moisture. The freezer can also work in most cases!

Step 5: Use them!

Seed viability decreases over time, and so be sure to use them when they’re at their peak! The best way to know for sure if your seeds are still good is to look up the typical longevity of seeds online. If you don’t think you’ll be able to use them before time is up, find a local seed swap or give them to a friend!

Additional Links

This infographic and the information presented here are just the first steps to saving seeds. My previous post on the dry method of saving seeds can be found here [x], but also, use the below links to continue your seed saving education!

On the importance of seed saving

Links to more information

Upcoming Food Conferences

Throughout the year there are some interesting and exciting events happening in the food movement, including a number of conferences that allow people to meet and exchange ideas. I’ve been compiling a list of conferences I want to try to attend, and I thought I would share the list! Below are some of the upcoming conferences happening this year, and I’ll hopefully be making my way to a few of them. Please feel free to let me know if you do attend one and what you thought of the event!

The True Cost of American Food [x]

April 14-17, 2016 | San Francisco, California

This conference is coming up very soon and focuses on the topic of the true cost of producing food in the United States. The speaker lineup is incredible, bringing together leaders from different sectors of the food system for this important conversation [x]. The price to attend both days as well as the starting reception on April 14 is $500,  but there are other ticketing choices available for the various field trips, special pricing if you are a student, and other options.

5th Annual UVM Food Systems Summit [x]

June 14-15, 2016 | The University of Vermont | Burlington, Vermont

The theme around this year’s Food Systems Summit at the University of Vermont deals is the question, “What makes food good?” Proposals for the summit were recently voted on, and the final schedule will be announced some time this month. The price for attending both days is $150 ($100 for students), but there is an option to attend just one day if you wish.

Food For Tomorrow Conference [x]

September 27-28, 2016 | The Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture, Pocantico Hills, New York

The annual Food For Tomorrow Conference is hosted by the New York Times at the Stone Barns Center for Food and Agriculture. (For more information on the Stone Barns Center, read my post [x].) Though the information for the 2016 conference is not yet available, you can sign up to stay updated on the details as they become available [x].

6th International Conference on Food Studies [x]

October 12-13, 2016 | University of California—Berkeley | Berkeley, California

The International Conference on Food Studies is now accepting proposals for this year’s conference to be held in October [x]. The deadline for proposals is July 12 (though late proposals are being accepted until September 12), and early registration closes on April 12. Regular registration goes all the way up to the first day of the conference, October 12. The full program will be available two months before the conference, but you can view the list of accepted proposals as they come in [x].

James Beard Foundation Food Conference [x]

October 17-18, 2016 | New York, New York

The theme of this year’s James Beard Foundation Food Conference deals with the making of the food movement. Namely, how do we make the food movement stick in a time when so many issues are competing for our attention? The conference will draw from a wide variety of disciplines, ensuring an interesting and lively conversation on the making of this movement. Registration is not yet available, but you can check the website periodically for more information.


If you know of any more food conferences coming up soon, please feel free to leave a comment or send an email to foodforestsforever[at]gmail[dot]com!

Links Round-Up #8: Food Politics

In this round-up: The slippery ways in which American politicians avoid the critical questions surrounding the U.S. food system.

Politics As Usual

“Editorial: Why Don’t Candidates Talk About Food?”, The Register’s Editorial, The DesMoines Register

With the 2016 U.S. presidential primaries well underway, many issues of national importance have been vehemently discussed in debates, town halls, and candidate rallies. However, the issue of the U.S. food system is hardly ever touched upon, despite focus groups and polls showing that 45% of people have reforming the food system as a top priority. As this editorial points out, the candidates could be wary to take a strong stance on the issue for fear of seeming overly critical of farmers. However, taking a smart stance on fixing the U.S. food system could benefit both the farmers and the general population in the long run, and the candidates should take the time to lay out their thoughts.

“Americans Want Fewer Politicians, More Sustainability In Our Dietary Guidelines”, Andrew Amelinckx, Modern Farmer

In the lead-up to the release of the 2015 dietary guidelines for Americans, a survey taken of 800 people across age, education, income, and gender categories showed some pretty interesting results: 92% believe that producing food sustainably is a high priority, 79% want scientists, not politicians, to set the dietary guidelines, and 52% would be less likely to re-elect a politician who ignored sustainability in the dietary guidelines. And yet, in 2014, the U.S. congress told President Obama to ignore any recommendations by the Dietary Guidelines committee that had to do with sustainability. This kind of political maneuvering goes against the wants and needs of the people. With the health and wellness of the people and planet at stake, it is past time that we get rid of corrupt politicians and implement a new set of standards that align with the attitudes of the country. The dietary guidelines are just the beginning.

Just Label It!

“Bill Blocking GMO Labels Stalls In Senate, But Battle Is Far From Over”, Maria Godoy, NPR

A recent bill put forward by Senator Pat Roberts would have blocked states from setting their own GMO labeling standards, like Vermont’s mandatory GMO labeling law. However, the bill failed to get the 60 votes needed to pass through, and so negotiations are underway to make further changes to this bill. The issue of labeling genetically-modified food has been vehemently debated in recent years, with most of the conversation revolving around the safety of these foods. However, the safety issue is just one of many problems that surround GMO’s. Issues of seed copyrighting, corporations abusing their power, and the environmental impact of these foods are never brought to light. A label is just the first step to help consumers make informed decisions about the food they buy, and it shouldn’t be this hard to just label it.

Links Round-Up #7: Food Activism

In this round-up: Tackling the industrial aspects of our current food system.

Standing Up to Big Business

“Ag-Gag Laws in America: The Ugly Truth”, Andrew Amelinckx, Modern Farmer

The role of news media is to keep a critical eye on those in power, and to bring information to the people to raise awareness on issues that affect them. However, laws known as “ag-gag” laws are threatening the ability of journalists, writers, activists, and others to bring attention to the questionable practices of industrial agriculture. This article illuminates the cascading consequences of having such laws in place, no matter what the stated intention of the law may be.

“The Woman Fighting To Make Sustainability Part of the American Diet”, Andy Bellatti, Civil Eats

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) have been released, and while there has been considerably more talk about these guidelines (over 30,000 comments were submitted by the public for the 2015 DGA, compared to about 1,000 for the 2010 DGA), they still largely resemble the guidelines of the past. However, the conversation has started, and hopefully future DGA’s will include recommendations on the sustainability and ethics of our food sources. This article highlights the work of Dr. Miriam Nelson, the associate dean and professor of nutrition at Tufts University, who has been fighting to include sustainability in the DGA.

Control Your Food, Control Your Life

“Discussing Food Sovereignty with Valeri Segrest”, Teresa O’Connor, UC Food Observer

Food traditions serve the dual purpose of creating a coherent sense of culture and identity while also passing down knowledge on what to eat and how to survive. However, oppressed peoples often have their traditions forcibly removed from them, taking away their agency and ability to survive independently. This interview with Valerie Segrest, a nutrition educator and member of the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, shows how she’s working to reclaim that culture and heritage and increase the health and wellness of Native Americans.

Links Round-Up #6: Waste Not, Want Not

In this round-up: A history of leftovers in the US, and ways to deal with all that excess.

A history lesson

“The Economic History of Leftovers”, Helen Veit, The Atlantic

Food waste and food rescue has gained more and more attention in recent years, inspiring everything from pop-up events with celebrity chefs to legislation banning food waste at the seller level. But the history of leftovers in the United States is multifaceted and complex, affected by economic conditions and societal norms. This article gives a closer look at what influences Americans’ relationship with leftovers, which can help us come up with lasting solutions to the problem of food waste.

Fresh food for all

“Gleaning: How Farmers Can Help Reduce Food Insecurity”, Vermont Law School, Modern Farmer

In the United States, an estimated 23% of all fruits and vegetables are wasted before they even reach the supermarket shelves. When approximately 1 in 7 people in the US are food insecure, this food should be diverted to those who need it the most instead of letting it go to waste. This article talks about gleaning, which is “the recovery of crops from fields or packing sheds for distribution to food-insecure populations.” Farmers are wary, however, to practice gleaning as it is usually volunteer-driven, and fresh food has a significantly shorter shelf life than processed foods. However, in the United States, the Bill Emerson Good Samaritan Food Donation Act protects donors from civil and criminal liability when they donate leftover food in good faith. Through this law, farmers can donate their excess when they can, helping fight food insecurity in the country’s most vulnerable populations.

“Getting Ugly Produce onto Hungry People’s Plates”, Jordan Figueiredo, Civil Eats

As stated above, an incredible amount of food is wasted before it even goes to the market, and a large portion of this food is discarded for being aesthetically imperfect, with discolorations or malformations that don’t affect the taste or nutritional value of the food. This article highlights programs that are purchasing excess and “ugly” produce to deliver straight to food pantries, helping distribute fresh food to the people who need it. In addition to getting food to people who are food insecure, this helps farmers who can’t afford to just donate the food (as is the case with gleaning).

Rescuing Leftover Cuisine: An Act of KINDness

KIND Causes: Rescuing Leftover Cuisine

Rescuing Leftover Cuisine (RLC) is a nonprofit organization that started in 2013, and they take leftover food from restaurants, caterers, and other food providers to bring it to nearby homeless shelters. RLC is unique in that they really focus on small actions that contribute to a larger solution. As the volunteers are mostly picking up and delivering food on foot, they can take any donation, no matter what the size is, and bring it to where it is needed the most. This sets them apart from many other food rescue organizations who have minimum weight requirements in order to pick up food. And this solution is working: RLC now rescues food in 12 cities on the east and west coasts, and rescues over 25,000 pounds of food per month. This month, RLC is part of KIND causes, and you can vote for them at the above link to help them win $10,000 towards their continued operations and expansion. Vote with a KIND act today!

Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime

Part One: An Overview

Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime is a nonfiction book by Kenneth I. Helphand about the history of gardens during wartime. The book focuses specifically on World Wars I and II, exploring gardens in five particular contexts: trench gardens in World War I, gardens in Jewish ghettoes during World War II, gardens created by Allied prisoners of war and civilian internees during both World Wars, Japanese-American internment camp gardens in World War II, and gardens after the World Wars. Beyond the similarities of examining gardening during wartime, these different contexts are unified by this central idea:

The garden thus became one more weapon in the arsenal against the enemy, a paradoxical and surprising warrior, a counterattack to the war itself.

The book is very well-researched with a wealth of information, complete with extensive references and excerpts from primary source material, including diary entries, letters, and photographs. Helphand’s writing is clear and concise, providing an intriguing interpretation of gardening during wartime that both informs and inspires.

Part Two: My Impressions

The book’s strength lies in creating a connection between these gardens and the adverse conditions in which they were created. By focusing on gardening during wartime, Helphand is able to create a larger picture of the overall ramifications of war, of the impacts that war has on life during and after the fighting. The main takeaway, for me, was this idea:

“[Gardens] offer a way to reject suffering, an inherent affirmation and sign of human perseverance. In contrast to war, gardens assert the dignity of life, human and nonhuman, and celebrate it.

Though the book is not instructional or about food production specifically, it gets at the heart of how land, personal identity, and liberty are intertwined. People during the World Wars turned to gardening as a way of creating their own freedom, even when they were, for all intents and purposes, not free.

Understanding the history and context in which people garden can be a source of inspiration and instruction in itself. Gardening during wartime allowed people to engage in an activity that reminded them of who they were, of what they were capable of, even in the midst of the traumas and horrors of warfare. Though the tremendous amount of effort people expended often yielded little return, the little that people gained from the garden often meant the difference of survival. Having an idea of the garden’s importance during wartime allows us to better understand what gardening means to us when we are technically at peace, when we are more free to do what we want with our time and resources.

Part Three: Conclusions

This book was published in 2006, and since then, Helphand has created a website, defiantgardens.com, to continue the story of gardening and wartime. Both expanding on the examples brought forth in the book and bringing up more recent examples of war-torn areas around the world, the website is worth a look to gain more understanding of the history of gardening in adverse conditions.

Overall, I would recommend this book, even though it’s not strictly a resource to do learn how to garden. Defiant Gardens can provide a deeper understanding into why we garden, what it means, and why it is so important that we continue.

Links Round-Up #5: Food and Nutrition(ism)

In this round-up: The links between food, nutrition, and health, and what you can do to understand them.

Kale-ing me softly

“No food is healthy. Not even kale.”, Michael Ruhlman, The Washington Post

Unless you raise or grow everything you eat, you are inundated with advertising and marketing from food companies when you go out to shop for groceries. Promises of being “low-fat,” “healthy,” and “natural” (and even “organic”) lure you into buying certain food products over others. However, this article points out how important it is to pay attention to the language of the information regarding food and our health. This quotation from the article sums up the point very well:

Fat isn’t bad; stupid is bad. And until we have better information and clearer shared language defining our food, smart choices will be ever harder to make.

Fear and loathing in the grocery store

“Too Cautious About Food? That’s Dangerous”, Faye Flam, Bloomberg View

Food and diet recommendations are dynamic and changing at a near-dizzying rate. Macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals all have their season, and we jump from one to the other when we learn about any potential dangers or benefits. This article addresses the problems with being overly cautious about food. It illustrates what happens when we caution against one component of our food (too much fat, too many carbs, not enough protein, et cetera) instead of addressing these things in the larger context of what our bodies need as a whole. As the article says: “When told not to eat one thing, we reach for something else.” Oftentimes, that other thing we reach for isn’t doing our bodies any favors.

In Defense of Food

In Defense of Food – Official Website

Near the end of 2015, I attended a screening of the In Defense of Food film. Now, clips from the film and other educational resources can be found on the official In Defense of Food website. There is an enormous amount of information dedicated to nutrition, health, and our food system, and it’s worth clicking through to find ways to integrate new methods into everyday life. It’s a fantastic website, and I highly recommend visiting!

Stanford Introduction to Food and Health, a Coursera MOOC

This class recently opened up on Coursera, and I’ve been making my way through the lessons. It is a very quick introduction to food and nutrition, and a great way to get some easy ideas on improving eating habits for overall better health. Since it is a Coursera MOOC (Massive Open Online Course), you can interact with people all over the world who are taking the course along with you, and you can access it with a free Coursera account. I believe it will only be available for a limited amount of time, so check it out today!

Study Snacks: The Future of Food and Education

There is this general idea that college students subsist on ramen noodles, dining hall all-you-can-eat options, and caffeinated/energy drinks. Certainly when I started college, this image of college and food turned out to be true of me. My dorm room didn’t have a kitchen, and the communal kitchen in the building was never really used, so homecooked meals were a rarity. Add on top of this that I was required to have a meal plan anyway, and money was tight so I needed things to be cheap and convenient, I slid into regularly eating multiple plates in the dining hall at mealtimes and eating Easy Mac at midnight.

The reliance on highly processed and fast food may lead you to believe that college students don’t care about the food they eat, that it’s a secondary priority or something that they haven’t thought about at all. However, today’s college students aren’t completely unconscious or unquestioning of the food they eat and its context. Quite the opposite, they are showing a strong desire to learn about the food system and how they fit into it. As of September 2015, over 70 institutes of higher education in the United States (community colleges, four-year colleges, and universities) have specific degree-granting programs for sustainable agriculture and food systems [1]. Around 30 colleges and universities offer interdisciplinary programs and minors in food and agriculture [2]. These numbers only continue to increase as schools evolve their course offerings to appeal to students who are applying and attending.

But why the increase in interest?

Under pressure and in control

From my personal experience, my interest in food started when I was a sophomore in college. I became a vegetarian in 2011, and while I was making the transition into that diet and lifestyle, I started being more aware of where my food was coming from. I started learning how to cook and prepare my own meals, which made me have a better understanding of nutrition and how food affects my health. I started paying attention to news stories about overuse of antibiotics in factory farms, about horrific conditions of animals being raised for food, and about pesticide use and genetically modified organisms in conventional agriculture. Overall, it was my changing diet that made me more aware of food issues, and I began to see food as more than simply fuel for my body.

But I’m not alone in viewing food this way; my peers, the “Millennials,” view food with the same curiosity and attention to detail, wanting a more transparent and sustainable food system [3]. This trend isn’t asserting itself because everyone is becoming vegetarian, but rather because Millennials view food as something they can understand and control [3]. By having control over their food, they can extend that control into the other, more uncertain, parts of their young adult lives.

According to the results of the My Food 30 survey that gathered data from 436 people aged 15 to 30, this age group’s biggest worry regarding education is job preparedness after graduation [4]. This worry likely inspires students to earn formal degrees in food studies and related areas. Food programs help students learn valuable skills while studying what matters deeply to them, and a degree in food studies can supplement or solidify their career aspirations after graduation. A degree in food studies isn’t limited to careers in farming, hospitality, or academia, but can help future doctors better advise their patients on their diets, can help environmental scientists understand the impact of conventional agriculture on climate change, and inspire policymakers to address inequalities that exist in the current food system [2]. Further still, recent college graduates are looking to alternative food careers at startups, urban farms, and at the intersection of food and technology [5]. With food studies providing so many options for careers, it’s no wonder that many college students are looking to study food in some capacity.

When the personal becomes political

But what does this mean for the future of food? Individual lifestyle changes are important to change the food system, but we need a cultural shift in the way we interact with food in order to make a lasting difference. As young people come into their own as adults, they have tremendous power to make the necessary cultural changes happen. Over time, food movements will gain more influence as the number of specialists, consultants, and experts in a wide variety of fields increases, adding to the already energetic movement consisting of community activists, local farmers, and small businesses.

And as young people turn their attention to food, this can also help inspire a new generation of farmers in the United States. Currently, the average age of farmers is 57 years old, up from 55 years old just five years ago [6]. But in order to entice young people away from higher-paying jobs in large cities, these young people need more help and support to ensure the success of their farming careers. I am of the opinion that student loan forgiveness should be universal and college should be free, but young farmers in particular need the assistance to pay back student loans so that they can better invest their income on keeping their farms financially afloat.

While change won’t happen overnight, it has already begun. Young people have already started demanding more transparency, calling for a more sustainable food system, advocating for workers’ rights, and being more conscious about their choices while purchasing food [4]. While this trend isn’t isolated to the youth, it will become more robust as Millennials get older and ostensibly earn more money and gain more power to change the system [7].

Ideological trends on college campuses can often predict the course of future events in the wider world. Today’s students are tomorrow’s leaders, and the increase in awareness and activism in food issues is promising. Food is something that I, and many of my peers, care deeply about, and we are in a position to truly change the system.

Links and Resources

Citations
[1] Majoring in Food: Colleges Offering More Courses, Degrees | Civil Eats
[2] Foodie culture is spurring degree programs at U.S. colleges | The Los Angeles Times
[3] Generation Yum: Why Millennials Are the Most Food-Obsessed Generation in History | Civil Eats
[4] My Food 30 – The Results | My Food 30
[5] Not Your Dad’s Farm Job: Millennials Look to High-Tech Farms For Careers | Civil Eats
[6] Farm Demographics | Start2Farm.gov
[7] ‘The U.S. consumer has changed’ | Food Business News

Additional Links

Links Round-Up #4: Women in Agriculture

In this round-up: Women make up 43% of the global agricultural labor force, but they face significant challenges in the workplace.

Women in a new workforce

“Urban Farms: The New Frontier for Female Farmers”, Trina Moyles, Modern Farmer

Young people often face significant barriers to enter into farming, including access to and purchase of land, start-up costs, and preexisting debt, like student loan debt. These costs and challenges are exacerbated when it comes to women and minorities attempting to enter into farming. However, urban farming can provide an easier transition into farming as a career, and can help decrease the gender gap. This article from Modern Farmer illustrates this point through the story of one woman’s urban farm.

Justice and injustice in the field

“How to Protect Female Farm Workers”, José R. Padilla and David Bacon, The New York Times

Recent studies have shown that most female farm workers have experienced some form of sexual harassment while working in the field. Add on top of this that many female farm workers are undocumented, whatever protections that are generally available to workers are severely limited for these women. In this piece, José Padilla and David Bacon offer a number of suggestions to protect the most vulnerable, including immigration reform and better protections for women who do come forward.

Who run the world? (Girls)

“30 Women Under 30 Changing Food”, Danielle Nierenberg and Emily Nink, Food Tank

According to the FAO, 150 million people could be lifted out of poverty if the world’s women in the agricultural labor force had the same access to resources as their male counterparts. However, a lack of resources does not deter women from working hard to grow and care for the food. Food Tank compiled a list of 30 women under the age of 30 that are changing the food system. These women range from documentary filmmakers to family farmers, and they’re changing the way we think about food. Go ahead and check out their amazing work!

What is WWOOFING?

“WWOOF” stands for “World Wide Opportunities on Organic Farms” [2]. Essentially, to WWOOF is to volunteer on an organic farm, and in exchange you get food, accommodation, and sometimes a small stipend to supplement living expenses, depending on what the host farm has to offer [3]. It isn’t necessary to have any prior experience working on an organic farm; many farms are open to newcomers and are willing to train people on the spot.

There isn’t a single organization that lists all organic farm opportunities, but many countries with a large number of organic farms often have a central site that lists all opportunities. The Federation of WWOOF Organizations lists all of the main websites for each country [1]. WWOOF Independents lists organic farms that are not affiliated with a national website. (For example, if a country does not have enough locations to have a complete website dedicated to their host farms, the farms that are in those countries will likely list on WWOOF Independents.) [4]

However, despite the lack of a central foundation, WWOOF farms do strive for consistent criteria when it comes to the WWOOFing experience. Whatever the arrangement between the volunteer and the host farm, it’s an even exchange of work for living accommodations for the duration of the stay. Volunteers interact directly with the farmers they are interested in working with, and collaboratively decide on the terms of their stay. (i.e. How long, what the accommodations will be like, what will be provided, etc.) [3]

What do I think?

In my opinion, WWOOFing is an amazing opportunity to make a difference in the world and gain some valuable life experience. Whether you plan on WWOOFing domestically or abroad, volunteering as a WWOOFer is a great way to travel, as the only costs associated are those of transportation. You also get to work directly with farmers and help them in areas where they need the most assistance. Projects can vary from daily farm tasks to helping build a new farm structure, depending on the season and what the farmer needs at the time of your visit.

WWOOFing seems to have taken off in recent years as a possible gap year opportunity after either high school or college [5]. As a result, many WWOOFers are young adults, but the opportunity is open to all ages; many farms accept families with small children, couples, and people with pets.

For just the cost of travel, you should strongly consider WWOOFing for your next break or vacation. I know that I am certainly considering WWOOFing the next time I get an extended time off. Note that there may be a one-time fee associated with signing up for a country’s WWOOF website. For example, there is a one-time fee associated with signing up for WWOOF USA of$40 [6].

Links & Resources

In my experience, people mostly hear about WWOOFing through word of mouth. Though the concept is easy to understand, sometimes the information can be a little scattered when it comes to how to get started and what to expect. A small sampling of links to help you get started can be found below.

Citations
[1] Federation of WWOOF Organizations
[2] History of WWOOF | Federation of WWOOF Organizations
[3] How it Works | Federation of WWOOF Organizations
[4] WWOOF Independents
[5] WWOOFing: Farm life for the fun of it | LA Times
[6] WWOOFer Membership | WWOOF USA

Additional Links

Re-greening the world.